Anxiety (Types: Generalized, Health, Panic, Phobia, Social)

This page contains information about the following forms of anxiety:

  • generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
  • health anxiety (hypochondriasis)
  • panic disorder
  • phobia
  • social anxiety


Audio Therapy Resources


Treatment guidelines

  • NICE guidelines for GAD and panic (January 2011)
  • NICE guidelines for social anxiety disorder (May 2013)

Assessment / Evaluation

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Social Anxiety Disorder


Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Treatment manual for general anxiety disorder PDF

Health anxiety

Panic disorder


  • Phobia self-help booklet from Glasgow STEPS including information about phobia and self-help interventions
  • Treatment manual and patient workbook

Social anxiety disorder

Key papers

  • Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Behar, E., DiMarco, I. D., Hekler, E. B., Mohlman, J., Staples, A. M. (2009). Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Conceptual review and treatment implications. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1011-1023

Health Anxiety

  • Asmundson, G. J. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Richter, A. A., Whedon, M. (2010). Health anxiety: current perspectives and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 306-312
  • Furer, P., Walker, J. R. (2008). Death anxiety: A cognitive behavioural approach. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(2), 167-182
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Warwick, H. M. C., Deale, A. C. (2003). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Severe and Persistent Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis). Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3, 353-367
  • Walker, J. R., Furer, P. (2008). Interoceptive exposure in the treatment of health anxiety and hypochondirasis. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(4), 366-378

Panic disorder

  • Clark D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24:461–470.
  • Clark, D. A. (1999). Anxiety disorders: Why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27
  • Schmidt, N. B., Woolaway-Bickel, K., Trakowski, J. et al. (2000). Dismantling cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: Questioning the utility of breathing retraining. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 417-424
  • Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. Chichester: Wiley.

Social Anxiety Disorder

  • Clark, D. M. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia
  • Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 16. 123-134
  • Wild, Hackmann, Clark (2008). Rescripting early memories linked to negative images in social phobia: a pilot study. Behaviour Therapy, 39(1), 47-56.  sciencedirect
  • Veale, D. (2003). Treatment of social phobia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9, 258-264

Other resources

The Mental Health Research Group at the University of Huddersfield developed a self-help pack for anxiety.

The Centre for Clinical Interventions (CCI) is an Australian mental health organisation that conducts research, provides training and supervision, and offers a clinical service. They have made a really useful selection of materials for treating generalised anxiety disorder