Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) worksheets for PTSD
worksheets for PTSD
Self-help.tools materials are designed to be usable by clients with minimal or no intervention from a therapist. Additional information is available on the Self-help.tools website.
Assessment / Evaluation
The US Department of Veterans Affairs maintain an up-to-date list of assessment tools and measures for PTSD. My preferred self-report measure is the recently-updated PCL-5, and the CAPS-5 remains the gold standard interview measure for PTSD.
Treatments for PTSD include:
Some helpful intervention materials for PTSD
PTSD is characterised by flashbacks and dissociation. Grounding techniques are essential to help people remain focused and in the present. They can be used to prevent arousal from getting too high during trauma reprocessing.
Lectures / Workshops
Working with refugees
These papers are recommended reading if you intend to work with PTSD. Ehlers & Clark (2000) present a comprehensive cognitive model, Grey et al (2002) present a framework for working with the meaning of the worst moments, and Brewin et al (1996) present a model for understanding what is happening to memory in PTSD.
- Brewin, C. R., Dalgleish, T., Joseph, S. (1996). A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103, 670-686 Download from utexas.edu (Useful for understanding the neural basis of memory in PTSD)
- Brewin, C. R., Gregory, J. D., Lipton, M., Burgess, N. (2010). Intrusive images in psychological disorders: Characteristics, neural mechanisms, and treatment. Psychological Review 117(1), 210-232 Download from apa.org
- Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345 Download from utexas.edu (The canonical reference for the treatment of PTSD: Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy [TF-CBT]. This model is suitable even for more complex PTSD, within a phased approach)
- Grey, N., Young, K., & Holmes, E. (2002). Cognitive restructuring within reliving: a treatment for peritraumatic emotional "hotspots" in posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30, 37-56 Download from psychiatry.ox.ac.uk
- Schauer, M., Elbert, T. (2010). Dissociation following traumatic stress. Journal of Psychology, 218(2), 109-127 Download from mandaladesign.com.au
Complex PTSD papers
Complex PTSD (cPTSD) is a somewhat disputed diagnostic category. Some argue that it is simply a severe form of PTSD, whereas others believe that it represents a distinct cluster.
- Cloitre, Courtois, Ford, et al. (2012). The ISTSS expert consensus treatment guidelines for complex PTSD in Adults. Retrieved from: http://www.istss.org istss.org
- Friedman, M. J. (2013). Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: Getting here from there and where to go next. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 548-556 Download from va.gov (Not strictly about complex PTSD but speaks about definitions)
- Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 377-391 Download from 184.108.40.206
- Terr, L. C. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American journal of psychiatry, 148(1), 10-20 Download from psy.utexas.edu
- Medford, N., Sierra, M., Baker, D., David, A. S. (2005). Understanding and treating depersonalisation disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 92-100 Download from rcpsych.org
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